Build Your Own Electric Goat Fence.
The biggest single expense with goat ownership is fencing. Goats are very tough to fence in. The can readily jump over, climb, squeeze through, or simply bash-down most typical livestock fences. There is an adage that says "If your fence won't hold water, it won't hold a goat." Some people swear by electric fences for goats. Others think woven wire is the way to go. However, I also wanted mine to keep chickens in and predators out. I finally settled on 5 foot welded wire fencing for the front paddock (about an acre) with electric fencing for a another "rougher" paddock of about 2 or 3 acres. This page is describes the building of the electric fence, the welded wire fence instructions are here.
Planning Phase

Now before you head down to the hardware store and start buying all the electric fence stuff you are going to need, you should first consider what "type" of electric fence you want to build. You should focus on deciding on the main components of your fence and how they will be used in your goat field. These main components are: Posts, Wire, Charger, and Grounding System. Also very important, you should also think long and hard about the gates you need to build and the overall size and shape of your goat fence. All of these will contribute to what you need buy and how you need to build the fence.


Posts:
The main choices for posts are Wood, Steel "T-posts", or Fiberglass step-in. Wood posts are the generally the strongest, but also the most costly and difficult to put in. Also, you may think that since wood doesn't conduct electricity you won't need insulators. This generally isn't the case. Wet weather will moisten and be absorbed into the wood and give it just enough conductivity to drain power out of your fence. However wood posts are an absolute necessity if you wish to build a high-tensile electric fence (see wire section).

Steel "T-Posts" aren't as strong as wood, but they are far easier to install. Obviously, they easily conduct electricity and insulators are a must. Also, they can't really be used for high-tensile fences, except maybe as spacers between wooden posts.

Fiberglass step-in posts are quite common, they are the easiest to install (many just have a little lip on the bottom that you can literally step on and install). However, they are not designed to be permanent. These are more suited for temporarily fencing in areas for goats to forage.


Wire:
The main choices for "wire" are various gauges and sizes of galvanized steel wire, aluminum wire, polywire, and polytape. Galvanized steel wire is by far the strongest and probably among the most least expensive options. However, it does have some drawbacks. It is the heaviest option, it will eventually rust away (probably take quite a while, but will get "rusty" looking in spots relatively quickly), and it can't be spliced by hand. Also, it conducts electricity only about 25% as well as aluminum.

Aluminum wire conducts electricity four times better than steel, can be spliced easily by hand, is far lighter, and will never rust. However, it is much weaker than steel wire. For example, 14 gauge steel wire has a break strength around 550 pounds, similar gauge aluminum has a break strength of around 215 pounds. Aluminum wire is also about twice the price of steel wire (or more)

Polywire is essentially poly rope with woven stainless steel fibers in it. It is relatively cheap and very light. Also, it is far easier to re-wind than either steel or aluminum wire. However, it conducts electricity quite poorly and will eventually degrade in the sun in a few years. Although it is easy to splice (basically tying in a knot), the splices add to the poor conductivity of this fencing material. It is best for temporary use on animals already trained to electric fences and that are relatively easy to fence (goats don't really apply here).

Polytape is essentially polywire in flat form. This has the same characteristics as polywire, but is just larger in size for higher visibility (particularly important for horses, but not so much for goats).

Chargers (also called "Energizers"):
You have three main types here. AC powered, DC powered, and DC solar-powered. AC powered are the most convenient if you have an electric outlet near where you would like to have your fence charger installed. The most powerful chargers are typically AC powered and they are readily available in many sizes.

DC powered chargers are also available. Most are designed to run on a deep-cycle marine batter. Contrary to what you might think, and electric fence doesn't use much electricity at all. So a marine battery may last 30 days or more. DC chargers are more convenient for remote installation where AC current isn't available. DC chargers are available in a wide range of sizes, though not as many as AC units

DC solar powered chargers are essentially a DC charger with a built in 6 or 12 volt batter and a solar panel. Many will run weeks without sunlight. However, these tend to be on the smaller power ratings.

Regarding power ratings in general. Be careful of measuring/comparing fence chargers in "joules" (although nearly all major brands list this in the specifications) a joule is a measure of power. A joule is simply amps X volts X time. The longer and more powerful the electric pulse, the higher the joule rating. But be careful, some of the very weak, "always on" chargers (meant for protecting gardens from gophers) would actually have an INFINITE joule rating, since they are constantly delivering a tiny amount of electricity. It is better to measure by volts and amps. Look at these factors when choosing a charger. Goats generally require at least 7,000 volts for control. Many fence chargers define there power by "mile of fence." Remember to look first at the voltage and amperage, and then on the mile ranges.... remember the mile ranges are for a SINGLE strand of wire under ideal conditions. So a four strand wire fence on mile long, has four miles of wire. If this is all too confusing.. just get the biggest most powerful fence charger you can, and you should be all set. Whatever you do, do skimp on the charger, or the entire fence will be weakened.

Grounding:

The ground is the other half of your fence. When an animal touches the fence, it flows through the animal into the ground to complete the electrical circuit and generate the "shock."The most powerful fence charger in the world will be useless if the ground is no good. Do not skimp on the grounding. Most fence chargers recommend you have no fewer than three 6' ground rods 10' apart. 8' ground rods are better. The more the merrier. To avoid electrolysis reactions, try to keep all the metals in your grounding system the same. If your grounding rod is copper, use copper wire. If your grounding rod is galvanized steel, use galvanized steel wire. If your fence is extremely long add extra grounding rods as far away from your charger as possible. Also add more rods if your soil is exceedingly dry. In extremely dry conditions, I have heard that folks actually need to "water" their ground rods. At Swampy Acres, there isn't much need for this, as the fence is in extremely wet ground.

Shape of the Fence:

Remember to always build your fence in a circle or square. You want both the beginning and end of the fence to connect directly to the charger. This will help to minimize voltage drop at the far end of the fence. Take a look at these two diagrams that will show how a poorly designed "linear" fence will show voltage drop at one end as compared to a "closed loop" fence.
Gates:

If will generally need at least one gate. If you are fencing a large area, multiple gates are obviously more convenient.You can make"gates" that are electrified merely by buying spring loaded rubber handles to attach between the wire and a fence post. However these looked a little "flimsy." Also, since if you are making multiple wire fences you will to have to hook and unhook multiple individual wires each time you go in and out of the gate. So consider how often you will be opening this gate. Wooden gates are also and option, but you must plan on routing the fence wires over or under these gates.


The Swampy Acres Goat Fence Materials:

Okay, here are the decisions I made for each of these choices:

Posts:

Since I have a relatively huge, irregular shaped area to fence, I chose steel t-posts. The ground is too uneven, with too many obstacles (including streams and swampy areas) to build a high-tensile fence. Also, I didn't want to install dozens and dozens of wooden fence posts. So, steel posts it was. I have read all types of opinions regarding how far apart fence posts should be. These range from 100' per post, right down to 10'. I started out with about 50 feet, but ended up with something closer to 25' spacing. Basically, the bottom wire would sag a bit a touch the ground if the spacing was farther apart. Also, the ground is uneven, so minor changes in the ground level would also cause problems. In some areas, I was able to get about 40'. In others, less than 10'. In addition to the steel fence posts, you need a number of items to hang the wire (I chose a five strand system). I went with the following equipment, all of it available at my local Tractor Supply Company:
Snap-on Insulators:

I bought hundreds of "short" yellow plastic insulators and a fewer number of longer 2" plastic insulators (above). These merely snap onto the posts and the "nubs" keep them from slipping down. You don't need to measure the spacing on these insulators, instead you can just count the "nubs" on the posts to keep spacing similiar. I wanted a five wire fence. The first four wires are about 9" apart, and the top wire is 15" away.


Post Caps:

I bought one cap for each post. It adds visibility to the fence, and doubles as a wire holder.


Screw in Insulators:

There is a section of my electric fence that backs up to my wooden welded wire fence. As such, I needed a number of screw in insulators as well (above)


In-Line Wire Clamps:

I bought enough galvanized wire clamps to attach wire under and/or over my gates.

Also pictured is some 14 gauge aluminum wire, and plastic-coated 14 gauge wire (suitable to bury). This is probably the "bare minimum" materials you will need to build a fence of this type. A few knife switches and a fence tester are also highly recommended and will be discussed later.

Wire:

I decided to use 14 gauge aluminum wire for this fence. It costs about 40 bucks for 1/4 mile of this. I appreciated the lighness, the conductivity, and the fact you can splice by hand.


Charger:

This was the biggest decision by far. I do not have an electrical outlet anywhere near the fence, so I knew I had to go with a DC system. However, I don't relish recharging a marine battery every 30 days. However, the "ready made" solar charging systems all seem pretty weak. They don't have enough shocking power for goats, and the batteries are extremely small. The most powerful ones are very expensive (the top-notch Zareba brand model is almost $400) Therefore, I finally decided to build my own high performance system.

So, I bought a fifteen watt solar panel, with a charge controller (turns the current "off" when the battery is full) for about $100. Next, I bought the biggest deep-cycle marine battery I could find (105 AH). I also went with a Zareba brand DC fence charger rated at "two joules" (model B25LI, rated for "25 miles"). I built a custom solar panel holder on top of one fence post and built a small enclosure to keep the rain of the battery, charger, and charge controller (below). So far this system is working great. The battery never comes close to draining down, as the solar panel can easily keep up with the demands of the fence.

Grounding:

I decided to go with three 6' galvanized steel grounding rods connected with grounding clamps (it is not a good idea to simply wrap the wire around the rods, they should be securely clamped). I used 14 gauge galvanized steel wire with a heavy plastic coating. Obviously, it isn't important to have this wire insulated, but it just comes this way, and I was too lazy to look for non-insulated wire. I guess I could also bury this wire, I just haven't gotten around to it yet.

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